Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective


The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use of lead in PSCs with little environmental impact. All other scenarios result in catastrophic emission of lead to the environment that would spell an end to widespread use of lead in PSCs.

Advanced Energy Materials